Research Insights

Subthalamic Stimulation, Apomorphine, and Levodopa Infusion in Parkinson’s Disease

Citation: Dafsari, H. S., Martinez‐Martin, P., Rizos, A., Trost, M., dos Santos Ghilardi, M. G., Reddy, P., & Barbe, M. T. (2019). EuroInf 2: Subthalamic stimulation, apomorphine, and levodopa infusion in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, s34(3), 353-365.


The aim of this study was to compare 3 well-established, safe and effective treatments for symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) to assist with improving quality of life. This is the first study to compare the different treatment effects of the following 3 therapeutic strategies in individuals with PD:

  • Deep Brain Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS)
  • Intrajejunal levodopa infusion (IJLI)
  • Apomorphine infusion (APO)

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